Dr. Tore Hoel is a researcher who until July 2020 was affiliated with the University Library at Oslo Metropolitan University (former Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences), Norway. He is working on international and European projects in the field of learning technologies and has been active in international standards communities in this field for more than a decade. Currently, he has a research focus on privacy engineering, learning analytics, and innovative technologies for learning, teaching and training. Lately, he has been working on projects with Beijing Normal University and Shanghai Open University. Also after retirement Dr. Hoel will keep his affiliation with Oslo Metropolitan University.
Hoel started his career in higher education as a director of communication at Oslo University College, and has the last more then ten years participated in international standardisation in the field of learning technologies and a number of national and European projects. Hoel has a background in journalism, publishing (founder of a number of professional journals), ICT consultancy, public relations and information management, as well as in ICT & learning, and standardisation.
PhD in Information Science, 2020
University of Jyväskylä
Mag.Art. in ICT & Learning, 2009
University of Gothenburg
BSc in Social Science and Philosophy, 1984
University of Oslo, University of Bergen
Hoel, T., Yuan, L. & Cao, M. (2021) Blockchain in education: What are the benefits for lifelong learning?. Global Lifelong Learning, Vol.1, No.1, pp.17-30. Online: http://shkfjyyj.paperonce.org/en/oa/darticle.aspx?type=view&id=202101003
Hoel, T. (ed). (2020). Blockchain in Education. Report from ISO/IEC JTC1/SC36 AHG5 to SC36 online plenary, September 2020.
Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Pawlowski, J. (2020). Making context the central concept in privacy engineering. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning 15:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-020-00141-9
Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Lu, Y. (2020). Teachers’ perceptions of data management as educational resource — A comparative Case Study from China and Norway. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy. Vol. 3/2020. Authors’ draft of extended version of this paper
Hoel, T. (2020). Privacy for learning analytics in the age of big data – exploring conditions for design of privacy solutions. PhD dissertation at University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
Xiao, J., Hoel, T., & Li, X. (2019). Constructing an Open Learning Analytics Architecture for an Open University. In Scheffel et. al. (eds). Transforming Learning with Meaningful Technologies. 14th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2019, Delft, The Netherlands, September 16–19, 2019, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 11722. Springer.
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2019). Privacy engineering for learning analytics in a global market – defining a point of reference. International Journal of Information and Learning Technology. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJILT-02-2019-0025
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2018). Privacy and Data Protection in Learning Analytics should be motivated by an Educational Maxim - towards a proposal. In Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. DOI: 10.1186/s41039-018-0086-8
Hoel, T. & Xiao, J. (2018). Towards an Open Architecture for Learning Analytics in Open and Distance Education. In Yang, J. C. et al. (Eds.) (2018). Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Computers in Education. Philippines: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel,T., Chen, W., & Gregersen, A.B. (2018). Are Norwegian Librarians ready to share Library Data to improve Learning? Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, Vol 10, No 1 doi:10.15845/noril.v10i1.269
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2018). Advancing the Delicate Issue of Ethics and Privacy for Learning analytics. In Companion Proceedings 8th International Conference on Learning Analytics & Knowledge (LAK18). Link to poster paper. Link to full proceedings. Link to PDF of poster and support material.
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2018). Interaction between Standardisation and Research – a Case Study. International Journal of Standardization Research (IJSR). Vol 16. Issue 1.
Hoel, T. & Mason, J. (2018). Standards for Smart Education - towards a development framework. Smart Learning Environments. Springer Open. DOI: 10.1186/s40561-018-0052-3
Wang, J., Mendori, T., Hoel, T. (2018). Strategies for Multimedia Learning Object Recommendation in a Language Learning Support System: Verbal Learners vs. Visual Learners. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, November 2018, Taylor & Francis. DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2018.1543085
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2017). Interaction between Standardisation and Research in Drafting an International Specification on Learning Analytics. In Chen, W. et al. (Eds.) (2017). Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computers in Education. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2017). Towards Developing an Educational Maxim for Privacy and Data Protection in Learning Analytics. Presented at EC-TEL Workshop on Ethics and Privacy for Learning Analytics 12 September 2017, Tallinn, Estonia.
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2017). Interaction between standardisation and research in drafting an international specification on learning analytics. In Chen, W. et al. (Eds.) (2017). Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computers in Education. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. (2017). Data sources for learning analytics: What is the current state-of-art in China? Visiting scholar report to Shanghai Open University, July 2017
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2017). Innovating Learning Analytics Policies in Norway - a case study. Draft workshop paper presented at LAK17 workshop on LA Policies.
Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Griffiths, D. (2017). Is International Consensus about Privacy Policies for Learning Analytics possible? Draft workshop paper presented at LAK17 workshop on LA Policies.
Hoel, T. (ed.) (2017)SN/TR 4183:2017 Datakilder og betingelser for deling av data for læringsanalyse.
Hoel, T., Griffiths, D., & Chen, W. (2017). The influence of data protection and privacy frameworks on the design of learning analytics systems (pp. 243–252). Proceedings of the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. http://doi.org/10.1145/3027385.3027414
Bowe, M., Chen, W., Griffiths, D., Hoel, T., Lee, J., Ogata, H., et al. (2017). [Learning analytics and policy (LAP)](../files/p516-bowe copy.pdf) (pp. 516–517). Presented at the Seventh International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference, New York, New York, USA: ACM Press. http://doi.org/10.1145/3027385.3029436
Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Mason, J. (2016). Data Sharing for Learning Analytics – Exploring Risks and Benefits through Questioning. Journal of the Society of e-Learning. Vol.1. No.1, December 2016. ISSN 2508-7584.
Griffiths, D., Hoel, T. (2016). Comparing xAPI and Caliper. Learning Analytics Review, no. 7, January 2016, ISSN: 2057-7494. http://www.laceproject.eu/learning-analytics-review/lace-review-7_comparing-xapi-caliper/
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2016). Data Sharing for Learning Analytics – designing conceptual artefacts and processes to foster interoperability. In Chen, W. et al. (Eds.) (2016). Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computers in Education. India: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2016). The Principle of Data Protection by Design and Default as a lever for bringing Pedagogy into the Discourse on Learning Analytics Workshop paper in Chen, W. et al. (Eds.) (2016). Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computers in Education. India: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2016). Implications of the European Data Protection Regulations for Learning Analytics Design. presented at CollabTech 2016, Kanazawa, Japan September 14-16, 2016
Mason, J., Chen, W., & Hoel, T. (2016). Questions as data: illuminating the potential of learning analytics through questioning an emergent field. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 1–14. http://doi.org/10.1186/s41039-016-0037-1
Ferguson, R., Hoel, T., Scheffel, M., & Drachsler, H. (2016). [Guest editorial: Ethics and privacy in learning analytics.](../files/JLA_2016_Guest Editorial_camera_ready.pdf) Journal of Learning Analytics, 3 (1), 5–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.18608/jla.2016.31.2
Hoel, T., & Chen, W. (2016). Privacy-Driven Design of Learning Analytics Applications: Exploring the Design Space of Solutions for Data sharing and Interoperability. Journal of Learning Analytics, 3(1), 139–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.18608/jla.2016.31.9
Hoel, T., Chen, W., & Cho, Yong-Sang (2016) Privacy Requirements for Learning Analytics – from Policies to Technical Solutions. Paper presented at Workshop on Ethics and Privacy for Learning Analytics, Monday, April 25th 2016 at the 6th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge (LAK ’16), Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Griffiths, D., Drachsler,H., Kickmeier-Rust, M., Steiner, C., Hoel, T., Greller, W. (2016) Is Privacy a Show-stopper for Learning Analytics? A Review of Current Issues and Solutions. Learning Analytics Review 6 ISSN:2057-7494 LACE project
Griffiths, D., Hoel, T. & Cooper, A. (2016) Learning Analytics Interoperability: Requirements, Specifications and Adoption. Public Deliverable D7.4 from the LACE project (European Commission Seventh Framework Programme, grant number 619424).
Drachsler, Hendrik; Cooper, Adam; Hoel, Tore; Ferguson, Rebecca; Berg, Alan; Scheffel, Maren; Kismihók, Gábor; Manderveld, Jocelyn and Chen, Weiqin (2015). Ethical and privacy issues in the application of learning analytics. In: 5th International Learning Analytics & Knowledge Conference (LAK15): Scaling Up: Big Data to Big Impact, 16-20 March 2015, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA.
Hoel, T., Mason, J., & Chen, W. (2015). Data Sharing for Learning Analytics – Questioning the Risks and Benefits. In Hangzhou, China, November 30 - December 4, 2015 - www.icce2015.zjut.edu.cn , published in Ogata, H. et al. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computers in Education. China: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Chen, W. (2015). Privacy in Learning Analytics – Implications for System Architecture — In Watanabe, T. and Seta, K. (Eds.) (2015). Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Knowledge Management. ISBN 978-4-9908620-0-8 Presented at ICKM 15 in Osaka, Japan, 4 - 6 November 2015 ickm.kis.osakafu-u.ac.jp
Hoel, T. (2015). An exploration of standardisation options for the new field of learning analytics — paper presented at Open Forum, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC36 meeting in Rouen, France, June 26, 2015
Hoel, T. (2015). e-Schoolbag in China – exploring research evidence for large scale deployment of e-Textbooks and services submitted to ICALT 2015, July 2014, Taiwan accepted as 2 page poster paper.
Hoel, T. and Chen, W. (2015) Privacy-driven design of Learning Analytics applications – exploring the design space of solutions for data sharing and interoperability LAK’15, March 16–20, 2015, Poughkeepsie, NY, USA.
Hoel, T. and Chen, W. (2014) Learning Analytics Interoperability – looking for Low-Hanging Fruits in Liu, C.-C. et al. (Eds.) (2014). Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education. Japan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education. Presented at The 1st ICCE Workshop on Learning Analytics (LA2014), Nara, Japan, December 2014
Hoel,T., Cooper, A.R., Vahdat,M. and Cardinali,F. (2014) LACE – CREATING A COMMUNITY ON LEARNER ANALYTICS AND EDUCATIONAL DATA MINING – STRUCTURING THE DISCOURSE Paper presented at EDEN Annual Conference Zagreb, 10-13 June 2014
Ossiannilsson, E. & Hoel, T. (2014). [OER in the Nordic countries - The NoricOER Project.](../files/oer14_Ossiannilsson_Hoel_OER_in_the _Nordic_countries_The NORDICOER Project.pdf) accepted at OER14: building communities of open practice, Newcastle, 28 - 29 April 2014
Hoel, T. (2014) Lack of openness as a potential failure in standardisation management – lessons learnt from setbacks in European learning technology standardisation presented 2014-03-24 at I-ESA Workshop on Standards Management workshop
Hoel, T. (2013). Standards as enablers for innovation in education – the breakdown of European pre-standardisation In Proceedings 2014 - Kaleidoscope 2014 - Living in a converged world - Impossible without standards? http://handle.itu.int/11.1002/pub/80a5593d-en.
Thomas Richter, Alan Bruce, Tore Hoel, Elina Megalou, Thomas Kretschmer, Ildiko Mazar, Sofoklis Sotiriou, & Christian M. Stracke. (2013). [Barriers against Open Educational Resources and possible Solutions: Teachers’ Perspectives and Recommendations](../files/2013 Richter.pdf) ICERI Sevilla conference.
Hoel, T., Yuan, L., and Baker, P. (2013). Standardising future formats of digital textbooks – A framework for mapping international stakeholders’ positions and context draft published in Open Forum on the Development of e-Textbook and e-Schoolbag Standards and Applications. Published in Journal of East China Normal University (Natural Science) (Issue No.2, March 2014) ( Published version)
Hoel, T. (2013). Paradoxes in LET standardisation – towards an improved process published in Wong, L.-H. et al. (Eds.) (2013). Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computers in Education. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. (2013). Digital textbooks – current status European and International formal standardisation & a proposed lifecycle model Position paper to W3C Workshop on Publishing using the Open Web Platform, Paris September 2013
Pawlowski, J.M. et al. (2013). THE NORDIC ALLIANCE FOR OPEN EDUCATION – STATE OF THE ART, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES, The Joy of Learning - Enhancing Learning Experience - Improving Learning Quality - Proceedings of the European Distance and E-Learning Network 2013 Annual Conference Oslo, 12-15 June, 2013, ISBN 978-963-89559-3-7
Hoel. T. & Pawlowski, J.M. (2013). How will the digital textbook of 2030 solve Meno’s paradox? Submitted to OPEN EDUCATION 2030. JRC-IPTS CALL FOR VISION PAPERS. PART II: SCHOOL EDUCATION, http://blogs.ec.europa.eu/openeducation2030
Hoel, T. & Hollins. P.A. (2013) Structuring the discourse about how to develop digital textbooks. Submitted as a short paper to ICALT 2013 - accepted as a poster.
Hoel, T. & Mason, J. (2012). Deficiencies of scope statements in ITLET standardization. To be presented at ICCE 2012, in Singapore, November 2012, published in G. Biswas et al. (Eds.) (2012). Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Computers in Education. Singapore: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. (2012). Has the time come to discuss technical affordances of standards? Short paper submitted to ICCE 2012, accepted as poster
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P. (2012). Foresight of Technology Enhanced Learning – How to see some light in the murky crystal ball? ICALT 2012, Rome
Lefrere, P., Hoel, T., Hollins, P., and Naeve, A. (2012) Smoothing the path to TEL 2020. ICALT 2012, Rome
Hoel, T. (2012). Global Trends and Forecasts for TEL – some results from the TEL-Map project. ICALT 2012, Rome
Hoel, T. & Holtkamp, P. (2012). Requirements modelling in International Information Systems Design – what competencies are needed and how to manage them? 13th European Conference on Knowledge Management, At Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, Spain, September 2012.
Hoel, T. & Pawlowski, J.M. (2012). Managing standards development in emergent fields of technology innovation – a proposed model of key processes in ICT standardisation, in Enterprise Interoperability - Proceedings of the Workshops of the Sixth International Conference I-ESA ‘12, ISTE Ltd, London.
Hoel. T. & Mason, J. (2011) Expanding the Scope of Metadata and the Issue of Quality, in T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Mason, J. (2011) Problematizing the Way we do Standards – Focussing more on Scope and Rationale, in Proceedings from Open Forum during ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 meeting in Shanghai, 13 September 2011, published by Eastern China Normal University
Hoel, T & Pawlowski, J.M. (2011) Modelling the CEN WS-LT Standardisation space, Special issue of the IEEE LT Newsletter on Adopting Standards and Specifications for Educational Content, Vol. 13, Issue 3, July 2011, online at http://www.ieeetclt.org/issues/july2011/IEEE-LT-Jul11.htm#_Toc300788488
Mason, J. & Hoel, T. (2011) The Relevant Questionand the Question of Relevance, in T. Hirashima et al. (Eds.) (2011). Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computers in Education. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education
Hoel, T. & Pawlowski, J.M. (2011) Key Knowledge Sharing Points: Exploring a new concept for studying Crossroads in Global Innovation Projects, ECKM 2011 - 12th European Conference on Knowledge Management, University of Passau Germany, 1-2 September 2011
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2011). Standards for Learning, Education and Training – a proposal for an improved process, ICALT 2011
Hoel, T. (2011) Never Waste a Good Crisis: Innovation and Technology in Institutions, Ariadne, Issue 66 January 2011, online at http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue66/cetis-2010-rpt/
Kozlov, D., Hoel, T., Pulkkinen, M. & Pawlowski, J. (2010). The discourse tool: a support environment for collaborative modeling efforts. In A. Heimbürger, Y. Kiyoki, T. Tokuda & N. Yoshida (Eds.), Proceedings of the 20th European-Japanese Conference on Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases: EJC2010 : Jyväskylä, Finland, May 31 - June, 4, 2010. (pp. 387-396). Reports of the Department of Mathematical Information Technology. Series A, Collections (1/2010). Jyväskylä, Finland: University of Jyväskylä.
Hoel, T., Hollins, P.A. & Pawlowski, J.M. (2010) On the Status of Learning Technology Specifications and Standards, Guest Editorial Preface in International Journal of IT Standards and Standardization Research, http://www.igi-global.com/Bookstore/TitleDetails.aspx?TitleId=45992
Hollins, P.A. & Hoel, T. (2010) Learning Technology Standards Adoption – Process Improvement and Output legitimacy, ICALT 2010, Sousse, Tunisia
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2009) Could European eGovernment Policy Initiatives, in Effect, be Stifling the Development of Learning Technologies?, ICALT 2009, Riga, Latvia
Hoel, T. & Kamtsiou, V. (2009) ICOPER Big Picture—Modelling the Central Concepts of Competency-Driven Learning, ICALT 2009, Riga, Latvia
Hoel, T. (2009) Towards a Conceptual Framework for Requirement Gathering and Roadmapping in the Design of Learning Technologies – an Activity Theoretical perspective on Nonaka & Takeuchi’s SECI model and its use in a Roadmapping Project, presented at 2009 Joint Summer School on Technology Enhanced Learning, Terchova, Sloavia
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2008) Learning technology standards adoption – how to improve process and product legitimacy ICALT 2008, Santander, Cantabria, Spain
Hoel, T. & Øverby, E. (2007) Access to digital information – the need for a change of paradigm T4P 2007 Conference (www.t4p.no)
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2007) The emergence of pragmatic community practice and specifications. Results from the European LIFE project. ICALT 2007
Hoel, T. & Øverby, E. (2007) Bridging the Accessibility Divide to Digital Information GIIS 2007 Symposium in Marrakech, July 2006 - www.gis2007.org
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2007) Considering “workblogs” as Organisational knowledge management tools, in Griffiths, D., Koper,R., & Liber, O. (2007). Service Oriented Approaches and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures. Proceedings of the 2nd TENCompetence Open Workshop. Institute of Educational Cybernetics: Bolton, UK, 2007-01-11 and 12, available online at: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/1023
Hoel, T. & Hollins, P.A. (2007) An exploration into inherent socio-political tensions in the application of “workblogs” as knowledge management tools, presented at the TenCompetence Workshop, Manchester, January 2007
Lavik, S.; Nordeng, T.W.; Meløy, J.R; and Hoel, T. (2006) Remote Topic Maps in Learning - presented at TMRA 2006, October 11th, 2006, Leipzig; printed in Maicher, L., Sigel, A, and Garshol, L.M. (eds.) “Leveraging the Semanitcs of Topic Maps”, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 0302-9743
Hoel, T. (2005) Model filtering - how to prevent black-boxing of discourses about learning and teaching), in"World Wide Work - Filtering of Online Content in a Globalized World” (ed. Sylvia van de Bunt-Kokhuis), VU University Press, Amsterdam 2006 (ISBN 90 5383 983 6)
Hoel, T. (2005) Standardization as a professional conversation - the need for auxiliary means). WCCE 2005